Front Matter| Volume 42, ISSUE 2, Pvii-x, April 2023


        Foreword: Put Me in Coach! xiii

        Mark D. Miller

        Preface: Coaching, Mentorship, and Leadership in Medicine: Empowering the Development of Patient-Centered Care xv

        Dean C. Taylor, Carolyn M. Hettrich, Jonathan F. Dickens, and Joe Doty

        Lessons from Executive Coaches: Why You Need One 185

        Marianne Lepre-Nolan and Leah D. Houde
        Executive coaches use a disciplined process to enable people to uncover why they are getting their current results and stimulate them to identify new ideas to achieve different results in the future. Unlike mentors, coaches do not give direction or advice. A coach might offer examples of what others have done in similar situations but only in service to idea generation, not recommendations. Data is key. Coaches typically gather information through assessments or interviews to give clients new insights. Clients learn about their deficiencies and strengths, their brand, how they work with teams, and glean unvarnished advice. Mindset matters. Anyone coerced into coaching might be frustrated about their situation and, therefore, be less open to honestly discovering the source of their discomfort and uncovering new possibilities through coaching. Courage is crucial. Being open to coaching can be daunting, yet with a willing mindset, the insights and results can be compelling.

        Professional Coaching in Medicine and Health Care 195

        Alyssa M. Stephany, Penny Archuleta, Poonam Sharma, and Sharon K. Hull
        Professional coaching can support individuals and organizations in four ways: (1) improving provider experience of working in health care, (2) supporting provider role and career development, (3) helping build team effectiveness, and (4) building an organizational coaching culture. There is evidence about effectiveness of coaching in business, and an increasing body of literature, including small randomized, controlled trials, supporting use of coaching in health care. This article summarizes the framework for professional coaching, describes ways professional coaching can support the four processes above, and provides case scenarios that contextualize understanding of how professional coaching can be of benefit.

        Coaching for the Orthopedic Surgery Leader 209

        David N. Bernstein and Kevin J. Bozic
        From the increase in telehealth to the expansion of private investors to the growth of transparency (both price and patient outcomes) and value-based care initiatives, health-care delivery is rapidly changing. At the same time, demand for musculoskeletal care continues to rapidly increase, with more than 1.7 billion people globally suffering from musculoskeletal conditions, yet burnout is a major concern and growing since the onset COVID-19 global pandemic. When taken together, these factors have a major impact on the health-care delivery environment and pose enormous challenges and increased stressors on orthopedic surgeons and their teams. Coaching can help.

        Enabling Medical Leaders Through Mentoring 219

        Patrick J. Sweeney and Joe LeBoeuf
        Mentoring is important to the development and enhancement of the medical profession and to organizational performance. The challenge is to implement a mentoring program within your organization. Leaders can use this article to assist in training both mentors and mentees. This article reminds people that the mindsets and skills necessary to become good mentor and mentee improve with practice, thus engage, learn, and improve. The time invested in mentoring relationships enhances patient care, creates positive work environment within organizations, improves individual and organizational performance, and creates a brighter future for the medical profession.

        How to Become a Mentor and Be Good at It 233

        Robin West
        Mentoring skills are key assets for academic medicine and allied health faculty. Mentors can influence and help to shape the careers of the next generation of health-care providers. Mentors are not only role models but they can also teach the intricacies of professionalism, ethics, values, and the art of medicine. A mentor can be a teacher, a counselor, or an advocate. Mentors can enhance their own leadership skills, improve self-awareness, and increase professional credibility. This article will review the types of mentoring models, the benefits of mentoring, and the core and critical skills of mentoring.

        How to Be a Mentee: Getting the Most of Your Mentorship 241

        Lance E. LeClere and Meghan E. Bishop
        Mentorship is a key part of the development of knowledge and skills in orthopedics. Mentorship at different phases of training and in practice is important in preparing and enabling a competent, knowledgeable, and well-rounded surgeon. The mentor is generally the one in a senior position, experienced in their field, while the mentee is the protégé or the trainee engaged in a relationship with the person with expertise. There should be mutual responsibility on both sides to develop a collaborative relationship in order to optimize value in the relationship for both parties.

        Leading Change in Health Care 249

        Neil E. Grunberg, John E. McManigle, Eric B. Schoomaker, and Erin S. Barry
        Change leadership is essential for individuals, teams, and organizations. It focuses on leadership to initiate, support, and adapt to modifications, alterations, and new situations. Many perspectives, models, theories, and steps have been offered to optimize change. Some approaches emphasize organizational change, whereas others focus on responses of individuals to change. With regard to leading change in health care, it is important to enhance well-being among health-care professionals and patients and to improve organizational and system best practices. To achieve optimal health-care changes, this article draws from several business-focused approaches to change leadership, psychological models, and the authors’ Leader-Follower Framework (LF2).

        Personal Growth and Emotional Intelligence: Foundational Skills for the Leader 261

        Bobbie Ann Adair White and Joann Farrell Quinn
        Emotional intelligence (EI) has gained popularity and is being seen as a necessity, spreading beyond the business world, and becoming universal. In that shift, medicine and medical education have started to see the importance. This is evident in mandatory curriculum and accreditation requirements. EI includes 4 primary domains with several subcompetencies under each domain. This article outlines several of the subcompetencies necessary for success as a physician, competencies that can be honed with targeted professional growth. Empathy, communication, conflict management, burnout, and leadership are discussed in an application way to help identify importance of and how to improve each.

        The Importance of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion for Effective, Ethical Leadership 269

        Lisa R. Coleman and Erica D. Taylor
        Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) increases performance through input of differing ideas and perspectives, leading to outcomes such as increased diagnostic accuracy, patient satisfaction, quality of care, and retention of talent. DEI can be difficult to establish due to the presence of unaddressed biases and ineffective policies against discrimination and noninclusive behaviors. Nevertheless, these complexities can be overcome through the integration of principles of DEI into the standard operations of health care, incentivizing DEI efforts through leadership curriculums, and highlighting the value proposition of diversifying our workforce as a critical asset to success.

        Insights on Coaching, Mentorship, and Leadership from Business to Health Care 281

        Sanyin Siang
        The still-evolving global pandemic has accelerated changes in how we work, how we lead, and how we interact. The power dynamic that once drove institutions has shifted to an infrastructure and operating framework encouraging new employee expectations, including the humanization of leadership from those in power. Trends in the corporate world show organizations have shifted to operational frameworks with humanized leadership models: leader-as-coach and leader-as-mentor.

        Coaching, Mentorship, and Leadership Lessons Learned from Professional Football 291

        James M. Whalen, Daryl J. Nelson, Ryan J. Whalen, and Matthew T. Provencher
        Coaching, mentorship, and leadership are all paramount for the creation of a championship-winning football team. Looking back and studying the great coaches of professional football provides valuable insight into the qualities and the characteristics they possessed and how that impacted their leadership. Many of the great coaches from this game have instilled team standards and a culture that led to unprecedented success and sprouted into many other great coaches and leaders. Leadership at all levels of an organization is essential to consistently achieve a championship-caliber team.

        Leadership Lessons Learned from the Military 301

        Francis G. O’Connor and Francis H. Kearney
        The military provides a valuable resource for the civilian medical education sector to potentially model or adopt strategies used to train emerging leaders. The Department of Defense has a long tradition of cultivating leaders, espousing a culture that emphasizes a value system that promotes selfless service and integrity. In addition to leadership training, and a fostered value system, the military additionally trains leaders to use a defined military decision-making process. This article identifies and shares lessons learned in how the military structures and focuses to accomplish the mission, and develops and invests in military leadership training.

        The Highly Reliable, Patient-Centered Sports Medicine Practice 317

        Bruce L. Gillingham and Christopher A. Kurtz
        Patient-centered care is safe and eliminates preventable patient harm. Sports medicine teams that understand and apply the principles of high reliability, as demonstrated by high-performing communities in the US Navy, will provide safer, higher-quality care. Sustaining high-reliability performance is challenging. Leadership is essential to creating an accountable but psychologically safe environment fostering active engagement by all team members and resisting complacency. Leaders who invest the time and energy to create the appropriate culture and who model the required behaviors enjoy an exponential return on their investment in terms of professional satisfaction and the delivery of truly patient-centered, safe, high-quality care.

        Coaching in Sports Medicine 325

        F. Winston Gwathmey and Mark D. Miller
        Similar to elite athletes, surgeons use their skills on a daily basis but coaching for skillset refinement is not common among surgeons. Surgeon coaching has been proposed a method by which surgeons can gain insight into their performance and optimize their practice. However, many barriers exist to surgeon coaching such as logistics, time, cost, and pride. Ultimately, the tangible improvement in surgeon performance, the elevation of surgeon well-being, the optimization of the practice, and better patient outcomes support a wider implementation of surgeon coaching for surgeons at all stages of their career.