Review Article| Volume 42, ISSUE 2, P269-280, April 2023

The Importance of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion for Effective, Ethical Leadership


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Clinics in Sports Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. Diversity, n. In: Oxford English Dictionary. June 2022.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
        • Paige S.E.
        Diversity bonuses: the idea.
        in: Lewis E. Cantor N. The diversity bonus: how great teams pay off in the knowledge economy. Princeton University Press, Princton, NJ2017: 13-52
        • Phillips K.W.
        • Paige S.E.
        What is the real value of diversity in organizations? Questioning our assumptions.
        in: Lewis E. Cantor N. The diversity bonus: how great teams pay off in the knowledge economy. Princeton University Press, Princton, NJ2017: 13-52
        • Heskett J.
        Why Don’t More Organizations Understand the Power of Diversity and Inclusion?.
        Harv Business Sch Working Knowledge, Business Res Business Leaders. 2020; (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
        • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
        Paving the Road to Health Equity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 20, 2022)
        • Braveman P.
        What are health disparities and health equity? We need to be clear.
        Public Health Rep. 2014; 129: 5-8
        • Braveman P.
        • Gruskin S.
        Defining equity in health.
        J Epidemial Community Health. 2003; 57: 254-258
      2. International Conference on Primary Health Care.
        Declaration Alma-ata WHO Chron. 1978; 32: 428-430
      3. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Diversity and Inclusion Definitions. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 20, 2022)
        • Dixon-Fyle S.
        • Hunt V.
        • Dolan K.
        • et al.
        Diversity wins: how inclusion matters.
        McKinsey & Company, 2020
        • Rosenkranz K.M.
        • Arora T.K.
        • Termuhlen P.M.
        • et al.
        Diversity, Equity and Inclusion in Medicine: Why It Matters and How do We Achieve It?.
        J Surg Educ. 2021; 78: 1058-1065
        • McFarling U.L.
        ‘It was stolen from me’: Black doctors are forced out of training programs at far higher rates than white residents. STAT.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
        • McDade W.
        Diversity and Inclusion in Graduate Medical Education. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
        • McDonald T.C.
        • Drake L.C.
        • Replogle W.H.
        • et al.
        Barriers to Increasing Diversity in Orthopaedics: The Residency Program Perspective.
        JB JS Open Access. 2020; 5: e0007
        • Paige S.E.
        Practice: D&T + D&I.
        in: Lewis E. Cantor N. The diversity bonus: how great teams pay off in the knowledge economy. Princeton University Press, Princton, NJ2017: 209-223
        • Kone J.D.
        2. S02:E02 – Supplier Diversity is Not a Handout with Jill Davis Kone. Supplier Diversity TV. October 15-16, 2018.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 6, 2022)
        • McGhee H.
        The sum of us: what racism costs everyone and how we can prosper together.
        Random House Publishing Group, Manhattan, NY2021
        • Norton M.I.
        • Sommers S.R.
        Whites see racism as a zero-sum game that they are now losing.
        Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011; 6: 215-218
        • McIntosh K.
        • Moss E.
        • Nunn R.
        • et al.
        Examining the Black-white wealth gap.
        Brookings. 2020; (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
        • Brown A.
        • Atske S.
        Black Americans have made gains in U.S. political leadership, but gaps remain.
        Pew Res Cent. 2021; (Available at:) (Accessed July 30, 2022)
      4. Catalyst. Quick Take: Why Diversity and Inclusion Matter. Catalyst Inc. June 24.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 6, 2022)
      5. Sinar E, Wellins RS, Canwell AL, et al. Global leadership forecast 2018: 25 research insights to fuel your people strategy: ASEAN, 2018, Development Dimensions International, Inc, The Conference Board Inc, EYGM limited.

        • Chang J.H.
        • Viveros J.L.
        • Wirth L.
        Women in Business and Management: the business case for change.
        2nd edition. International Labour Organization, Geneva2019
        • Gomez L.E.
        • Bernet P.
        Diversity improves performance and outcomes.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2019; 111: 383-392
        • Gaither S.E.
        • Apfelbaum E.P.
        • Birnbaum H.J.
        • et al.
        Mere membership in racially diverse groups reduces conformity.
        Social Psychologic Personal Sci. 2018; 9: 402-410
        • LaVeist T.A.
        • Nuru-Jeter A.
        • Jones K.E.
        The association of doctor-patient race concordance with health services utilization.
        J Public Health Policy. 2003; 24: 312-323
        • Gibson D.
        • Gonzales J.L.
        • Castanon J.
        The importance of reputation and the role of public relations.
        Public Relations Q. 2006; 51: 15
        • Zalis S.
        Inclusive ads are affecting consumer behavior, according to new research. The Female Quotient, Google/Ipsos.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 6, 2022)
        • Rabl T.
        • Triana M.D.C.
        • Byun S.Y.
        • et al.
        Diversity Management Efforts as an Ethical Responsibility: How Employees’ Perceptions of an Organizational Integration and Learning Approach to Diversity Affect Employee Behavior.
        J Business Ethics. 2020; 161: 531-550
        • Sherbin L.
        • Rashid R.
        Diversity doesn’t stick without inclusion. Harvard business review.
        Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, MA2017: 1-5
        • National Cancer Institute
        Part 2: theories and applications.
        U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD2005: 9-35
      6. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retaliation-Based Charges (Charges filed with EEOC) FY 1997 – FY 2021.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 6, 2022)
        • Dobbin F.
        • Kalev A.
        Making discrimination and harassment compliant systems better. 1st edition. What works? Evidence-based ideas to increase diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace.
        University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA2018: 24-30
        • Quinn K.
        • Macrae C.
        • Bodenhausen G.
        Stereotyping and impression formation: how categorical thinking shapes person perception.
        in: Hogg M.A. Cooper J. The SAGE handbook of social psychology: concise student edition. SAGE Publications Ltd, 2007: 68-92
        • Berrey E.
        • Nelson R.L.
        • Neilsen L.B.
        Stereotyping and the reinscription of race, sex, disability, and age heirarchies. Rights on trial: how workplace discrimination law perpetuates inequality.
        University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL2017: 225-259
        • Sears D.O.
        • Henry P.J.
        The origins of symbolic racism.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003; 85: 259-275
        • Bielby W.T.
        Minimizing workplace gender and racial bias.
        Contemp Sociol. 2000; 29: 120-129
        • Rosenberg M.B.
        • Chopra D.
        Nonviolent communication: a language of life: life-changing tools for healthy relationships.
        PuddleDancer Press, Encinitas, CA2015
        • Bourke J.
        • Titus A.
        Why Inclusive Leaders are Good for Organizations, and How to Become One.
        Harv Business. 2019; (Available at:) (Accessed August 10, 2022)
        • Newman E.A.
        • Waljee J.
        • Dimick J.B.
        • et al.
        Eliminating Institutional Barriers to Career Advancement for Diverse Faculty in Academic Surgery.
        Ann Surg. 2019; 270: 23-25
      7. Orthopaedic Diversity Leadership Consortium. Our Mission. ODLC.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 10, 2022)