Review Article| Volume 35, ISSUE 2, P245-255, April 2016

Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law

An Update
Published:November 23, 2015DOI:


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      1. Mitten MJ. Emerging legal issues in sports medicine: a synthesis, summary, and analysis, vol. 76. St. John’s L. Rev. 2002. p. 5.

        • Calandrillo S.P.
        Sports medicine conflicts: team physicians vs. athlete-patients. vol. 50. St. Louis U.L.J., 2005: 185
        • Furrow B.R.
        Health law symposium: the problem of the sports doctor: serving two (or is it three or four?) masters. vol. 50. St. Louis U.L.J., 2005: 165
      2. Mitten MJ. Annotation, medical malpractice liability of sports medicine care providers for injury to, or death of, athletes, vol. 33. 5th edition. ALR: p. 619.

      3. Krueger v. San Francisco Forty Niners, 234 Cal. Rptr. 579 (Cal. Ct. App. 1987).

      4. Zimbauer v. Milwaukee Orthopedic Group, LTD vol. 920 F.Suppl 959, 967 E.D.Wis. 1996).

      5. Landis M. The team physician: an analysis of the causes of action, conflicts, defenses and improvements, vol. 1. In: Depaul J, editor. Sports L Contemp Probs. 2003. p. 139.

      6. Gibson v. Digiglia, 980 So. 2d 739, 741 (La.App. 3 Cir. 2008).

      7. Hamilton v. Winder, 2007 La. App. Unpub. LEXIS 432 (La. App. 1 Cir. 5/4/07).

      8. Villegas v. Feder, 901 N.Y.S.2d 911 (2009).

      9. Weiss v. Pratt, 53 So.3d 395 (Fla.App. 4 Dist. 2011).

      10. The statutes at issue in Weiss were Fla. Sta. §768.135 (volunteer team physicians immunity) and Fla. Stat. §766.102 (expert witness testimony in medical malpractice actions).

      11. Fla. Stat. §768.135.

      12. ORC Ann. 2305.231(B); M.S.A. §604A.11 (immunity unless acts were committed in a “willful and wanton or reckless manner.”).

      13. LSA-R.S. 9:2798.

      14. Cal. Ed. Code §49409 (interscholastic athletic events); Va. Code Ann. §8.01–225.1; W.Va. Code §55-7-19(b). Similarly, Oregon provides protections for team physicians rendering emergency care not just at interscholastic athletic events, but also college and “other athletic events.” ORS §30.800(b)(2).

      15. O.C.G.A. §51-1-45.

      16. A.R.S. §;32–4103.

      17. Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code §2076; S.C. Code Ann. §40-47-30(B)(1)(c); Va. Code Ann. §54.1-2901(A)(30).

      18. S.689, 114th Cong. (2015-2016).

        • Harvey H.H.
        • Koller D.L.
        • Lowrey K.M.
        The four stages of youth sports TBI policymaking: engagement, enactment, research, and reform.
        J Law Med Ethics. 2015; 43: 87
      19. West’s Revised Code of Wash. Ann. 28A.600.190(4); North Dakota Century Code Annotated §15.1–18.2-04(4).

      20. Neb. Rev. St. §71–9104(2)(a); 16 V.S.A. §1431(d)(2)(requiring written permission from a “health care provider.”); South Carolina Code 1976 §59-63-75(d)(3)(requiring medical clearance by a “physician.”).

      21. West’s Revised Code of Wash. Ann. 28A.600.190(4). (providing for liability only if the volunteer health care provider engaged in willful or wanton misconduct or acts that constitute gross negligence); Tenn. Code Ann. §68-55-503(b)(3)(no liability when health care provider is acting “in good faith”; does not cover acts of “willful misconduct,” “gross negligence,” or “reckless disregard.”); South Carolina Code 1976 §59-63-75(d)(5)(extending immunity to athletic trainers, physicians, physician assistants or nurse practitioners who serve as volunteers and do not engage in gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct).

      22. North Dakota Century Code Annotated §15.1-18.2-04(5)(c)(stating that “any health care provider who signs an authorization… is acknowledging that the provider is acting within the provider’s scope of practice and is trained in the evaluation and management of concussion, as determined by the provider’s licensing board).

      23. N.J.S.A. 18A:40-41.7; N.J.S.A. 26:2–192(a)(effective Sept. 1, 2015).

      24. 2015 Ill. Senate Bill No. 8, Ill. 99th Gen. Assembly (January 15, 2015).

      25. McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012, Br J Sports Med 2013;47:250–8.

      26. Zemke v. Arreola, 2006 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 4999.

      27. Scottland v. Duva Boxing LLC, 2005 N.Y.Misc. LEXIS 8482 (2005).