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Micronutrient Requirements for Athletes

      Vitamins and minerals are necessary for many metabolic processes in the body and are important in supporting growth and development [
      • Wardlaw G.M.
      Perspectives in nutrition.
      ]. Vitamins and minerals also are required in numerous reactions involved with exercise and physical activity, including energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, oxygen transfer and delivery, and tissue repair [
      • Wardlaw G.M.
      Perspectives in nutrition.
      ]. The vitamin and mineral needs of athletes have always been a topic of discussion. Some researchers state that athletes require more vitamins and minerals than their sedentary counterparts, whereas other researchers do not report greater micronutrient requirements. The intensity, duration, and frequency of the sport/workout and the overall energy and nutrient intakes of the individual all have an impact on whether or not micronutrients are required in greater amounts [
      • Wardlaw G.M.
      Perspectives in nutrition.
      ,
      • Burke L.
      • Heeley P.
      Dietary supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids in sport.
      ,
      • Kimura N.
      • Fukuwatari T.
      • Sasaki R.
      • et al.
      Vitamin intake in Japanese women college students.
      ]. This article evaluates the vitamin and mineral needs of athletes.
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