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Etiologic and pathogenetic factors for rotator cuff tendinopathy

      Rotator cuff tendinopathy is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain and functional impairment [
      • Iannotti J.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears: factors affecting surgical outcome.
      ,
      • Uhthoff H.K.
      • Sarkar K.
      Classification and definition of tendinopathies.
      ]. An understanding of the anatomy, histology, and biomechanics of the rotator cuff may provide some insight into the pathologic process involved in this tendinopathy. Multiple factors play a role in both the normal and pathologic rotator cuff. These factors, including muscle, tendon, ligament, labrum, bone, and vascular supply, coalesce to create a complex biomechanical, biochemical, and molecular biologic structure. The emergence of appropriate animal models has given researchers the ability to address causation of tendinopathies rather than being limited to descriptions of existing pathology in living and cadaveric tissue. The clinical implications of these basic science studies can further research and therapeutic modalities.
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